Terms Explained

To help you to fully understand the terminology used by Banyards' tree surgery teams, here is a useful reference:

Formative Pruning
Contributes significantly to the ultimate shape and size of a tree and may help to avoid the need for more drastic surgery at a later date. In a young tree it determines whether it will be feathered or clear stemmed, whether it will have a central leader or be branch headed, and whether the tree will be single or multi-stemmed.

Crown Cleaning
This involves the removal of dead, dying, diseased, crossing and poorly formed or attached branches.

Crown Lifting
The lower branches are removed in order to achieve clearance for pedestrians, vehicles or property. It is defined in terms of height.

Crown Thinning
Selected branches are removed to increase light penetration and the movement of air through the crown of the tree. It leaves the overall shape of the tree unchanged and is defined in terms of a percentage (normally between 10% and 25%).

Ivy Band
Removal of a band of Ivy from around the trunk's circumference.

Pollarding
Modern urban pollarding of street trees typically involves removing a percentage (normally between 25% and 40%) of the crown of a semi-mature tree. The re-growth is then removed at regular intervals to restrict both the height and spread of the tree. Traditionally, trees were pollarded to obtain firewood, withies (used to tie up bundles of wood), or a late fodder crop, at a height above the reach of grazing animals. Many of our veteran trees are pollards.

Coppicing
This technique is used to produce ornamental stems, juvenile foliage (for flower arrangements) and multi-stemmed rather than single stemmed specimens. Traditionally certain trees were coppiced to produce fencing materials, hurdles, spars and firewood on a 7-year cycle.

Felling
From the old English 'fellan', to strike down by blow or cut.

Stump Grinding
The reduction to ground level of the remaining stump and major roots of a felled tree by use of a mechanical stump grinder with grinding blade.